Auto Insurance: Understanding Your Coverage

Key Components of Auto Insurance

Auto insurance can seem complex and confusing, especially if you’re new to it. However, understanding the ins and outs of your policy is crucial for making informed decisions. Here, we break down key components of auto insurance coverage, provide examples, and answer some frequently asked questions.

Liability Coverage

Liability coverage provides financial protection if you are found at fault for an accident that causes injury or damage to another person’s property. This type of coverage typically pays for medical expenses, legal fees, and property damage expenses incurred by the other party up to the policy’s limit. It is a legally required component of auto insurance in most jurisdictions.


If you have BI coverage of $50,000/$100,000, it means your insurer will pay up to $50,000 per person and $100,000 per accident for bodily injuries you cause.

Collision Coverage

Collision Coverage covers the cost of repairing or replacing your vehicle if it’s damaged in an accident with another vehicle or object, such as a tree or guardrail. Unlike liability insurance, which covers the other party’s costs if you’re at fault, collision coverage is designed to reimburse you for damage to your own vehicle.


If you collide with a lamppost, your collision coverage will pay for the repairs, minus your deductible.

Comprehensive Coverage

Comprehensive coverage in an auto insurance policy provides protection against damages to your vehicle that are not caused by a collision. This can include events such as theft, vandalism, natural disasters, and contact with animals. Unlike liability and collision coverage, comprehensive insurance covers losses that are often beyond the driver’s control.


If your car is stolen, comprehensive coverage will pay for its current market value, minus your deductible.

Uninsured/ Underinsured Motorist Coverage

Uninsured/Underinsured Motorist Coverage is a component of an auto insurance policy that provides financial protection for you and your passengers in the event of an accident with a driver who either has no insurance or insufficient insurance coverage. This coverage pays for medical expenses, lost wages, and other damages that you would normally seek from the at-fault driver’s insurance, up to your policy’s limits. Essentially, it fills the gap between what the at-fault driver can pay and what you may need to recover.


If an uninsured driver hits you and you have $40,000 in medical bills, your uninsured motorist coverage will pay those bills up to your coverage limit.

Personal Injury Protection (PIP)

Personal Injury Protection (PIP) is a type of auto insurance coverage that pays for medical expenses and, in some cases, lost wages and other damages, regardless of who is at fault in an accident. PIP is often referred to as “no-fault” coverage because it kicks in regardless of who is to blame for the accident. The scope and limits of PIP can vary by jurisdiction and policy, but it is designed to cover immediate and necessary medical expenses for you and sometimes your passengers.


If you and your passenger are injured in an accident, MedPay will cover both of your medical expenses up to your policy limit.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q: What is a deductible?
A: A deductible is the amount you pay out-of-pocket before your insurance kicks in. For example, if you have a $500 deductible and $2,000 in repairs, you pay $500 and your insurer pays $1,500.

Q: Do I need full coverage?
A: It depends on your financial situation, the value of your car, and whether you can afford repairs or a new car if yours is damaged or stolen.

Q: What are state minimums?
A: State minimums are the least amount of liability coverage you must have to legally drive. However, these often offer insufficient protection.

Q: How can I lower my premium?
A: Increasing your deductible, bundling insurance policies, and maintaining a good driving record are a few ways to lower your premium.

Q: What happens if I’m at fault in an accident?
A: Your liability coverage will pay for the other party’s expenses up to your policy limit. You may also have to pay out-of-pocket if the costs exceed your coverage.

How to Read Your Auto Insurance Coverage

Each coverage type will have limits, often written in a format like: 250/500/250 and are expressed in thousands of dollars. (i.e., $250,000 / $500,000 / $250,000).


Let’s say you are at fault in an accident that injures two people and damages another person’s car.
  • Person A has medical expenses of $200,000.
  • Person B has medical expenses of $150,000.
  • The damaged car repair costs $50,000.
In this case:
  • Both Person A and Person B’s medical expenses would be covered because each is below the $250,000 per person limit.
  • However, the total bodily injury expenses ($200,000 for Person A + $150,000 for Person B = $350,000) exceed the $500,000 per accident limit. You would be responsible for the amount that exceeds this limit, which is $350,000 – $500,000 = -$150,000 (you’re over by $150,000).
  • The property damage to the car would be fully covered as it’s below the $250,000 limit for property damage.

How an Umbrella Policy Integrates with Your Auto Insurance

An Umbrella Policy provides an extra layer of liability protection that goes above and beyond the coverage limits of your standard auto insurance policy. This becomes crucial when you’re involved in a severe accident where expenses like medical bills, property damage, and legal fees can skyrocket beyond your regular policy’s limits.

What It Covers

An umbrella policy kicks in where your auto insurance leaves off. If you are at fault in a major accident and your liability coverage has a limit of $300,000, but you are sued for $1 million, your umbrella policy will cover the $700,000 difference.


Suppose you have auto insurance coverage with liability limits of $100,000 for bodily injury per person and $300,000 per accident. If you’re at fault in an accident causing severe injury to multiple people and the total cost comes to $500,000, your standard auto insurance will cover $300,000. If you have a $1 million umbrella policy, it would cover the remaining $200,000, thereby protecting your assets and savings.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q: Is An Umbrella Policy Expensive?
A: Umbrella policies are generally cost-effective, considering the amount of additional coverage they provide. Premiums may range from $150 to $300 per year for $1 million in coverage.

Q: Do I Need An Umbrella Policy If I Already Have High Liability Limits?
A: Even if you have high liability limits on your auto insurance, an umbrella policy can offer further protection for extreme cases where those limits are not sufficient.

Q: Can One Umbrella Policy Cover Multiple Properties And Vehicles?
A: Yes, a single umbrella policy can extend over your auto insurance, homeowners insurance, and even boat or RV insurance, offering comprehensive protection.

When to Consider an Umbrella Policy

Final Thoughts

Understanding your auto insurance coverage is crucial for financial protection and peace of mind. Review your policy, ask questions, and adjust your coverage as needed to fit your lifestyle.By integrating an umbrella policy with your auto insurance, you bolster your financial safety net, ensuring that you’re well-protected against life’s unpredictable events.
The content on this site, provided by Able Wealth Management, is purely informational. While we aim for accuracy and completeness, we cannot guarantee the exactness of the information presented. The views and analyses expressed in this blog represent those of the authors at Able Wealth Management. They should not be considered as investment advice or endorsement of any particular financial instrument or strategy. Any references to specific securities and their performance are purely informational and should not be taken as advice to buy or sell.Before implementing any information or ideas presented, we strongly advise consulting with a financial advisor, accountant, or legal counsel. Investing carries inherent risks, including potential capital loss. Asset values can fluctuate over time and may be worth more or less than the original investment. Past performance does not guarantee future results, and Able Wealth Management cannot ensure that your financial goals will be achieved. Information from third-party sources has not been independently verified by Able Wealth Management. Although we trust these sources, we cannot assure their accuracy or completeness.

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Volatility Drag

Volatility drag, often unnoticed by many investors, plays a significant role in the performance of investment portfolios, especially in markets characterized by high volatility. Understanding volatility drag is crucial for making informed investment decisions and managing long-term investment performance.

Understanding Volatility Drag

Volatility drag refers to the negative effect of investment volatility on compound returns over time. It occurs because losses have a more significant impact on portfolio value than gains of the same magnitude. For example, if an investment loses 10% one year and gains 10% the next, the investment will not return to its starting value due to the mathematical asymmetry between gains and losses. This phenomenon underscores the importance of minimizing large fluctuations in investment value to protect long-term returns.

The Mathematics Behind Volatility Drag

The mathematical principle underlying volatility drag is relatively straightforward but profound in its implications for investors. The key concept is that percentage gains and losses are not symmetrical. A 50% loss requires a 100% gain to break even, not a 50% gain. This asymmetry means that volatility (up and down movements in price) can erode the compound growth rate of an investment, even if the arithmetic mean of the returns seems healthy.

Example of Volatility Drag

Consider an investment with the following annual returns: +20%, -15%, +10%, and -5%. While the arithmetic mean of these returns might suggest a modest positive performance, the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) would tell a different story, factoring in the volatility drag and showing a lower effective return than the arithmetic mean would suggest.

Implications for Investors

  • Risk Management: Understanding volatility drag emphasizes the importance of risk management strategies, such as diversification and the use of derivatives for hedging, to minimize significant downturns in portfolio value.
  • Investment Strategy: Investors might consider investment strategies that aim for steady, consistent returns over those with potentially higher but more volatile returns. Such strategies might include investing in low-volatility stocks, index funds, or using dollar-cost averaging to mitigate the impact of market fluctuations.
  • Psychological Aspects: Volatility drag also highlights the psychological challenge for investors who may overreact to short-term market movements. A long-term perspective is crucial for successful investing, as frequent trading in response to volatility can exacerbate the drag on returns.
  • Performance Evaluation: When assessing investment performance, considering both the arithmetic mean return and the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) can provide a more comprehensive view of an investment’s performance, factoring in the effect of volatility.

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